PHALECARPS

Breast Cancer

Mechanism of action

Prescribing information

Patient Information

Phalecarps in the world


:: Breast Cancer ::
Statistic and Facts
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women and it is the second leading cause of cancer deaths following lung cancer.1 In developed countries, rates of women who have breast cancer have been rising over the last few decades.2 According to the American Cancer Society, the chance of a woman having invasive breast cancer some time during her life is a little less than 1 in 8. The chance of dying from breast cancer is about 1 in 35.3 About 85% of breast cancers occur in women who have no family history of breast cancer. These occur due to genetic abnormalities that happen as a result of the aging process and life in general, rather than inherited mutations.4

What is Breast Cancer?
Breast cancer is an uncontrolled growth of breast cells. This cancer forms in tissues of the breast, usually the ducts (tubes that carry milk to the nipple) and lobules (glands that make milk).5 Due to genetic mutations, the natural death of the cells does not occur and they begin to multiply indefinitely. This leads to a tumor which can be benign (not dangerous) or malignant (dangerous, can spread to other parts of the body). The breast cancer is a malignant tumor that has developed from cells in the breast.6

What are the symptoms of Breast Cancer?
Early breast cancer usually does not cause symptoms. As the cancer grows symptoms may include:7,8

  • Breast lump or lump in the armpit that is hard, has uneven edges, and usually does not hurt
  • Change in the size, shape, or feel of the breast or nipple -- for example, you may have redness, dimpling, or puckering that looks like the skin of an orange
  • Breast pain
  • Nipple pain or the nipple turning inward
  • Fluid coming from the nipple -- may be bloody, clear to yellow, green and look like pus
  • Swelling of all or part of the breast

How to detect and control Breast Cancer?
Breast self-examination can be done by the patient to help detecting breast cancer. This activity should be part of a monthly health care routine, and any breast changes should be reported to a doctor.
Tests used to diagnose and monitor patients with breast cancer may include7,9:

  • Breast MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) to help better identify the breast lump or evaluate an abnormal change on a mammogram;
  • Breast ultrasound to show whether the lump is solid or fluid-filled;
  • Breast biopsy;
  • CT scan to see if the cancer has spread;
  • Mammography to screen for breast cancer or help identify the breast lump;
  • PET scan;
  • Sentinal lymph node biopsy to see if the cancer has spread.

There are several ways to control breast cancer, among other10:

  • Maintain your weight in order to reduce the productivity of estrogen (especially after menopause). By controlling estrogen, you can also lower breast cancer risk.
  • Healthy eating to reduce cancer risk.
  • Doing physical exercise 5 or more days a week, for 45-60 minutes.
  • According to several studies, reducing alcohol consumption can lower the risk of breast cancer
  • Smoking is associated with a small increase in breast cancer risk.
  • Because the female hormone estrogen stimulates breast cell growth, exposure to estrogen over long periods of time, without any breaks, can increase the risk of breast cancer.
  • Using oral contraceptives (birth control pills) appears to slightly increase a woman’s risk for breast cancer, but only for a limited period of time.
  • Reduce your stress and anxiety.

But, in several instances we cannot control breast cancer risk, among other10:

  • Gender. Being a woman is the most significant risk factor for developing breast cancer, although men can get breast cancer, too, but it is comparatively rare.
  • Age. Simply growing older is the second biggest risk factor for breast cancer.
  • Family history of breast cancer.
  • Personal history of breast cancer.
  • Radiation therapy to the chest.
  • Breast cellular changes.
  • Exposure to estrogen.
  • Density of the breast.
  • Women who took a medication called diethylstilbestrol (DES)

What are the risks and complications of Breast Cancer?
The main risk of breast cancer if not detected immediately and treated promptly is death.
Women who have breast cancer may experience complications or side effects from cancer treatment. Several side effects that often occur are, among others:

  • Surgery can be performed which results in breast removal
  • From chemotherapy, the digestive tract and the hair are often involved in side effects. The common side effects from chemotherapy are nausea and vomiting. Depression also often appears as one of the side effects of chemotherapy;
  • Radiation and hormone therapy can also produce side effects. From radiation therapy, side effects can come on slowly. Over time, common side effects that seemed wholly manageable at first can become debilitating, while more serious —if rarer—complications such as inflamed lung tissue, heart damage, orsecondary cancers can emerge. A long term side effect from hormone therapy (lowered estrogen) is a significantly greater risk for osteoporosis;
  • Side effects from mastectomy usually are psychological effects. Some patients may find it discomforting to lose one or both breasts, and may experience depression or anxiety following the surgery;
  • Other side effects such as destruction of the chest wall surrounding the breast; mastitis; nipple discharge; and chest pain. 11, 12

How to prevent Breast Cancer?
There are steps every person can take to help the body stay as healthy as possible and lower risk of breast cancer or a breast cancer recurrence, such as maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking, limiting alcohol, and exercising regularly. 10
Lifestyle changes can also prevent breast cancer, such as eating a well-balanced diet and avoiding focusing on one "cancer-fighting" food. The American Cancer Society's dietary guidelines for cancer prevention recommend that people:

  • Choose foods and portion sizes that promote a healthy weight
  • Choose whole grains instead of refined grain products
  • Eat 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables each day
  • Limit processed and red meat in the diet
  • Limit alcohol consumption to one drink per day (women who are at high risk for breast cancer should consider not drinking alcohol at all) 8

How to treat Breast Cancer?
In general, cancer treatments may include:

  • Medicines to avoid cell spreading
  • Chemotherapy medicines to kill cancer cells
  • Radiation therapy to destroy cancerous tissue
  • Surgery to remove cancerous tissue -- a lumpectomy removes the breast lump; mastectomy removes all or part of the breast and possible nearby structures 7

Phalecarps
Phalecarps which contains DLBS1425 has been developed from Phaleria macrocarpa fruit to treat breast cancer. Thanks to its anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic properties, Phalecarps is pharmacologically ideal for the prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer.

Source:
1. Trandasasmita, Olivia M., Jason S. Lee, Sung Hee Baek, and Raymond R. Tjandrawinata. Induction of cellular apoptosis in human breast cancer by DLBS1425, a Phaleria macrocarpa compound extract, via  downregulation of PI3-kinase/AKT pathway. Cancer Biology & Therapy 10:8. Published October 15, 2010
2. World Health Organization. Cancer. http://www.who.int/tobacco/research/cancer/en/
3. American Cancer Society. How many women get breast cancer. http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/BreastCancer/OverviewGuide/breast-cancer-overview-key-statistics
4. Breastcancer.org. U.S Breast Cancer Statistics. http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/statistics.jsp
5. National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health. Breast Cancer. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/breast
6. Breastcancer.org. What is Breast Cancer. http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/what_is_bc.jsp
7. A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia, PubMed Health. Breast cancer, Cancer - breast; Carcinoma - ductal; Carcinoma - lobular; DCIS; LCIS; HER2-positive breast cancer; ER-positive breast cancer; Ductal carcinoma in situ; Lobular carcinoma in situ. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002267/
8. American Cancer Society. Signs and symptoms of breast cancer. http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/BreastCancer/MoreInformation/BreastCancerEarlyDetection/breast-cancer-early-detection-acs-recs-signs-symptoms-br-ca
9. Breastcancer.org. Breast cancer tests: screening, diagnosis, and monitoring. http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/testing/types/
10. Breastcancer.org. Breast Cancer Risk Factors. http://www.breastcancer.org/risk/factors/
11. Healthline Connect to Better Health. Breast cancer complications. http://www.healthline.com/health/breast-cancer-complications
12. FreeMD, Your Virtual Doctor. Breast Cancer Complications. http://www.freemd.com/breast-cancer/complications.htm

:: Mechanism of action ::
DLBS1425 is a bioactive fraction containing Phaleria macrocarpa fruit.

DLBS1425 exhibited inhibition of proliferative, migratory and invasive potential of MDA-MB-231 in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced phosphoinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase /protein kinase B (AKT) signalling by reducing PI3K transcript level and subsequent reduction in AKT phosphorylation.

Further, it induced pro-apoptotic genes including BAX, BAD and PUMA and consequently induces cellular death signals by caspase-9 activation, promoting PARP cleavageand DNA fragmentation. DLBS1425 was also found to down-regulate COX-2, cPLA2, and VEGF-C mRNA expressions. However, DLBS1425 does not inhibit growth of normal breast cells, MCF10A cells.
Therefore, our results suggest that DLBS1425 is a potential anticancer agent with specific target genes and cells.

:: Prescribing information ::
 

Composition:
Each capsule contains: Bioactive fraction DLBS1425 Phaleria Macrocarpa 150 mg

 

Usage:
Helps in the treatment of breast cancer


Dosage and administration:
Adult: 1 capsule, 3 times daily

Warnings and precautions
- Only for breast cancer patients.
- During treatment, consult your doctor regularly. 

Presentation and registration number
Box, 5 strips @ 6 capsules ; POM TR. 152 388 131

:: Patient Information ::
 

What is Phalecarps?
Phalecarps is a herbal drug which contains DLBS1425 that has anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic properties. Hence, Phalecarps is pharmacologically ideal for the prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer. From the studies, the standardized bioactive fraction DLBS1425 showed an inhibition in proliferation and induced apoptosis gene on breast cancer cells.

Phalecarps is an effective option to treat cancer, especially breast cancer.

Contraindication to take Phalecarps
You should not take Phalecarps if you are allergic to one or more of its components.

How should I take Phalecarps?
Phalecarps should be taken three times daily. Always follow your doctor's prescription.
Phalecarps should be taken after meals. Take the capsule with a glass of water.

What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember,
even if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose.

What should I do while taking Phalecarps?
Try to have a healthy and balanced diet and get enough sleep.

Side effects of Phalecarps
No side effects have been reported. Considered as safe if taken at the recommended dosage.
If you experience any side effect that might be caused by Phalecarps, call your doctor as soon as possible.

Interaction of Phalecarps with other drugs
Phalecarps do not interact with other medication.

What should I tell my pharmacist/doctor?
Always tell your doctor / pharmacist

  • If you are taking any other medicines or food supplements;
  • If you have any allergy.
  • Women should tell their doctor / pharmacist if they are pregnant or planning to get pregnant

What storage conditions are needed for Phalecarps?
Store at temperature below 30oC and protected from light.

:: Phalecarps in the world ::
Phalecarps is marketed in Indonesia and currently under review in other countries. Our goal is to offer the possibility for patients globally to have access to Phalecarps. If you are interested in partnering with us, please see the partnership page in this website or contact us directly.